Web 3.0 and crypto are very broad terms. At its core, crypto solves for a high level of security and certainty needed when running digital transactions, especially those involving money or digital assets (another broad term).
Web 3.0 is a set of information technologies that emerged with great interest in the late 2000s. This combined the tools of cryptography with innovations in digital ledgers known as blockchains, software-enforced “smart” contracts, and the ability to run these tools across a decentralized network of computers, thanks to the widespread availability of broadband.
Perhaps the most pivotal innovation is the means of achieving consensus on which transactions could be executed, and in what order, on a decentralized network. The implications are that the means and mode of transactions are not centralized or owned by a single entity, and that digital assets may be privately, securely held by the creator of the assets or data.
For a better understanding of blockchain, smart contracts, and related Web 3.0 technologies, see the resources section below.